On 25 June 1975, Emergency was declared for the first time in the country. This is because the court had quashed the election victory of the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi as wrong. Indira did not resign. Son Sanjay and private secretary RK Dhawan sent letters containing the names of the opponents to the chief ministers and ordered their arrest.
Today in the series of characters and stories of politics, we will know the story behind the Emergency. First of all, the matter of the election, which became the reason for this.
Officers put on duty in election campaign
For the 1971 Lok Sabha elections, Indira Gandhi declared herself a candidate from Rae Bareli seat on 29 December 1970. He started campaigning on 7 January. Yashpal Kapoor, a senior official of the Prime Minister’s Secretariat, got involved in his election campaign. He resigned from his post on 13 January, but remained in government service till 25 January and continued to campaign for Indira.
When election results came, Indira Gandhi defeated Raj Narayan of Socialist Party by 1 Lakh 11 Thousand 810 votes. Indira got 1 lakh 83 thousand 309 votes. Raj Narayan went to court. He alleged that Indira Gandhi won the election by misusing the government machinery. Indira took it lightly. So lightly that no lawyer was appointed on his behalf.
Indira used to get pandals made by government officials
On 12 June 1975, Justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha of the Allahabad High Court annulled Indira Gandhi’s election. Also, Indira Gandhi was disqualified for constitutional posts for the next 6 years. While delivering the verdict, the court had said, “Indira Gandhi had taken the help of government officials of UP to make pandals for her election rallies.”
When Indira thought of resigning, Sanjay stopped her.
After the Allahabad High Court’s decision, Indira made up her mind to leave the post of PM. The then CM of West Bengal Siddharth Shankar Ray and Law Minister HR Gokhale reached Safdarganj home. After a while Agriculture Minister Jagjivan Ram, Party President Devkant Barua, Umashankar Dixit also reached. Indira told Siddhartha, “I should resign.” Siddhartha remained silent for a while, then said, “Take a thought.”
In the book ‘Ek Jeevan Kafi Nahi’, journalist Kuldip Nayar writes, “Indira wanted to resign, but then her younger son Sanjay arrived and convinced his mother not to resign.” Sanjay had then said, “If you resign, the opposition will put you in jail on one pretext or the other.” Indira Gandhi got it right.”
The power of the media was cut to make the opposition rally fail.
The first blow to Indira Gandhi was given by the court, the second blow was given to her by the Gujarat elections. When the results came, it was found that the Janata Front had defeated the Chimanbhai Patel government. Bengal CM Siddharth Ray also advised Indira to impose emergency now. Indira’s private secretary RK Dhawan was also with Sanjay and Siddharth’s decision. When Indira did not resign even after 10 days of the court’s decision, the opposition decided to hold a huge rally in Delhi on 26 June.
The Intelligence Bureau had received inputs of rebellion regarding the rally. Sanjay got the newspaper lights cut so that the talk of the rally did not reach far. Along with RK Dhawan, a list of leaders of opposition parties was sent to the Chief Ministers. The aim was to arrest them and put them in jail. Indira’s other boy Rajiv did not like all this, but he could not convince Sanjay.
Declaration of emergency without any discussion in the cabinet
Indira Gandhi wrote a letter to the then President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed. In it, she said, “Wanted to talk to the cabinet, but it is not possible. The unrest spread in the country is a big threat.” Fakhruddin signed that letter. With this, emergency was declared on the midnight of 25 June. Indira Gandhi’s voice was heard on the radio,
“Ever since I have taken some necessary steps for the benefit of the common man and the women of the country, conspiracies are being hatched against me.”
After the declaration of Emergency, people started being searched and put in jails, because during this time the government had all the rights under Section-352. Indira could stay in power as long as she wanted. Censorship increased over radio bulletins and newspaper reports. All bulletins were circulated only after they were read.
Sanjay launches five point program
There was anarchy in the country. Lakhs of people were put in jail. Sanjay Gandhi started a five-point program in the meantime. Among these were family planning, the abolition of dowry system, planting of trees, adult education and the abolition of caste system. All these were followed very strictly. In the name of beautification, the slums of Turkman Gate of Delhi were demolished in a day. About 50,000 people were affected.
a young man came crying and the rule changed
A person who was a teacher by profession. Arrived at Indira Gandhi’s Delhi office after five days of walking. The man told Indira, “The administration showed strictness with me to get the vasectomy done. The police hit me with punches, I kept telling that I had only one daughter but they did not agree and forced me to vasectomy.” The young man further told that the police in the village surround the villagers at night and take him away for sterilization. After saying this, the young man started crying.
Indira was hurt for the first time. In front of him, a man who had suffered the brunt of the system stood crying. Indira ordered that if any government employee would not deal strictly with the people for family planning. Sanjay Gandhi was not at home when she was giving this order. In 19 months, 83 lakh people were sterilized across the country.
Credit: www.bhaskar.com /